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(EXPERIMENTAL) NOAA GraphCast Global Forecast System (GFS) (EXPERIMENTAL)

agriculture climate disaster response environmental meteorological weather


The GraphCast Global Forecast System (GraphCastGFS) is an experimental system set up by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) to produce medium range global forecasts. The model runs in two modes on different vertical resolutions; 13 and 37 pressure levels. The horizontal resolution is a 0.25 degree latitude-longitude grid (about 28 km). The model runs 4 times a day at 00Z, 06Z, 12Z and 18Z cycles. Major atmospheric and surface fields including temperature, wind components, geopotential height, specific humidity, and vertical velocity are available. The products are 6 hourly forecasts up to 10 days. The data format is GRIB2.

The GraphCastGFS system is an experimental weather forecast model built upon the pre-trained Google DeepMind’s GraphCast Machine Learning Weather Prediction (MLWP) model. The GraphCast model is implemented as a message passing graph neural network (GNN) architecture with “encoder-processor-decoder” configuration. It uses an icosahedron grid with multiscale edges and has around 37 million parameters. This model is pre-trained with ECMWF’s ERA5 reanalysis data. The GraphCastGFSl takes two model states as initial conditions (current and 6-hr previous states) from NCEP 0.25 degree GDAS analysis data and runs GraphCast (37 levels) and GraphCast_operational (13 levels) with weights provided by GraphCast. Unit conversion to the GDAS data is conducted to match the input data required by GraphCast and to generate forecast products consistent to GFS from GraphCastGFS’ native forecast data.

The input data for both modes generated from the GDAS data as GraphCast input is provided under input/ directory. One file is for 13 pressure levels and the other for 37 pressure levels. Example of file names are
One file is for 13 pressure levels and the other for 37 pressure levels. The 13 and 37 pressure level forecasts are under forecasts_13_levels/ and forecasts_37_levels/, respectively. There are 40 files under each directory covering a 10 day forecast. An example of file name is listed below


Please note that this NOAA GFS Model was produced using a code package released by Google DeepMind. For information on Google DeepMind, please visit their github page listed in the documentation and license sections of this page.

Update Frequency

4 times a day at 00Z, 06Z, 12Z and 18Z


NOAA's GraphCast GFS products are released under CC0 license. The underlying GraphCast code package created by DeepMind is released by Google under a separate license. The products in this bucket only contain NOAA produced products and not GrahCast code or training data. For information on GraphCast, please visit the "Google DeepMind GraphCast Gitub License page".


For the NOAA Product, and for background graphcast information,

Managed By

See all datasets managed by NOAA.


For questions regarding data content or quality, visit the NOAA EMC Github site. For any general questions regarding the NOAA Open Data Dissemination (NODD) Program, email the NODD Team at
We also seek to identify case studies on how NOAA data is being used and will be featuring those stories in joint publications and in upcoming events. If you are interested in seeing your story highlighted, please share it with the NODD team by emailing

How to Cite

(EXPERIMENTAL) NOAA GraphCast Global Forecast System (GFS) (EXPERIMENTAL) was accessed on DATE from

Resources on AWS

  • Description
    GraphCast GFS data
    Resource type
    S3 Bucket
    Amazon Resource Name (ARN)
    AWS Region
    AWS CLI Access (No AWS account required)
    aws s3 ls --no-sign-request s3://noaa-nws-graphcastgfs-pds/
    Browse Bucket
  • Description
    New data notifications for GraphCast GFS, only Lambda and SQS protocols allowed
    Resource type
    SNS Topic
    Amazon Resource Name (ARN)
    AWS Region

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